Bridging Science and Humanity.

Calerie Life Sciences Foundation is committed to unraveling the complexities of human health issues and developing innovative solutions to improve lives.

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Calerie Life Sciences Foundation

Through cutting-edge research methodologies and state-of-the-art technologies, Calerie Life Sciences Foundation focuses on studying a wide range of health challenges, from understanding the mechanisms behind age-related diseases to investigating new therapeutic approaches for other conditions. By bridging the gap between scientific discoveries and practical applications, Calerie Life Sciences Foundation aims to transform the future of healthcare and contribute to the well-being of individuals worldwide. Here at CalerieScience, we also aim to provide comprehensive advertising strategies, in-depth marketing analysis, and expert consulting services, strategically tailored to amplify your brand's digital presence and drive impactful results in today's competitive market landscape.

Vision

Serve as a research organization that provides centralized resources to address human health issues.

Mission

Collaborate with scientists to address life science challenges and health-related issues.

Value

Calerie Life Sciences Foundation is a nonprofit charity focused on life sciences research and human health.

Science Team

Judi Quilici Timmcke

Judi Quilici Timmcke is presently a scientist and works as Chief Scientific Officer. She has worked in the dietary supplement industry as Vice President of Product Development and Research for IN Ingredients and Weider Nutrition International, Director of Product Development and Research for Rexall Showcase International and other companies. She has formulated products, wrote and substantiated claims.

Mohammad Shaharuzzaman

Dr. Shaharuzzaman has a Ph.D. in Synthetic Organic Chemistry from the University of Missouri and a Master of Science in Chemical Engineering from the University of British Columbia in Canada specializing in the effects of mixing. He has been working for over 20 years in quality assurance and control, research and development, and formulation for nutraceutical and personal care industries.

Tyler W. LeBaron

Dr. Tyler LeBaron is an expert in Molecular Hydrogen and is the Founder and Executive Director of the Molecular Hydrogen Institute. He speaks on Molecular Hydrogen around the world and is also the director of the International Hydrogen Standards Association and the International Molecular Hydrogen Association.

Articles

Obesity is a growing problem and serious medical condition that impacts millions of individuals worldwide, with a prevalence in the United States now close to 40% for adults. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) worldwide obesity has nearly tripled since 1975 and in 2016, approximately two billion adults were overweight and of these, over 650 million were obese. At this point, most of the world's population live in countries where being overweight and obese results in death at a higher rate than being underweight. Indeed, excess body weight is a problem that needs to be addressed. 

Weight Loss through Exercise, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplementation Introduction 
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‍The Hope Molecule - PGC-1α (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1α) is a member of a family of transcription coactivators that plays a central role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. It is strongly induced by cold exposure, linking this environmental stimulus to adaptive thermogenesis (Liang H & Ward WF, 2006). PGC-1α is considered an important factor in controlling mitochondrial health. It’s also essential for energy metabolism, circadian rhythms, blood pressure, fat metabolism, and balancing cholesterol levels. 

PGC-1α - a Key Regulator of Energy Metabolism 
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Sleep is critically important to the functioning of the brain and influences how neurons communicate with each other. The brain is very active while we sleep during that time even toxins are eliminated. It is difficult if we aren’t sleeping well and have to get up early. Melatonin is an important hormone secreted by the pineal gland that is elevated during sleep and assists circadian rhythm regulation. Circadian rhythms are the process that controls the sleep-wake cycle and repeats around every 24 hours.

What to do when you can’t sleep and have to get up early
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NAD+ is short for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide as the oxidized form, found in all living cells. NAD+ is used in the metabolic pathways in the body to make energy. Although, it is the trigger for repairing DNA, which is necessary during the aging process and important for the skin. Many skin care companies are launching NAD+ products because of the potential benefits. 

Boosting NAD+ May Help Repair Damaged Skin 
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‍Zinc is an important mineral that has many roles to play in the body including in the immune system. It is needed for catalytic activity of various enzymes, the manufacturing of protein, wound healing, cell division and manufacturing DNA. Low levels of zinc may cause problems with immune function to fight off harmful compounds during the aging process. 

Zinc, Longevity and Immunosenescence 
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It is fascinating that research shows that individuals with high levels of vitamin C may live longer than those who are lacking. A 16 year study was performed with 948 individuals between the ages of 53 and 84 looking at vitamin C status. The study showed that individuals with the highest vitamin C blood levels had a 25% reduced risk of premature death from different health conditions (Wang S-M et al, 2018). That’s amazing. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is a water-soluble vitamin which is found in citrus fruits like oranges, strawberries, broccoli and in raw leafy vegetables. In the body, vitamin C functions to help protect the immune system, but helps in developing and maintaining connective tissues, forming bone, gums and in healing wounds. 

Vitamin C a “Rescuer” from Premature Aging 
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‍N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) is a building block to one of the most important antioxidants in the body called glutathione. Many clinical trials are ongoing to show the health rewards of NAC throughout the body. NAC is a compound made from the amino acid, cysteine, important to the body. It is an antioxidant found in plants of the Allium Species, especially in onions. Cysteine is made in the body by the essential amino acid methionine and is found in high protein foods such as turkey, chicken, cheese, yogurt, and eggs. 

The Power of N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine 
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Mushrooms have been used as food or traditionally used as medicine since 5000 BC. Reishi mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum), known as the King of Mushrooms, is a fungus that grows in humid and hot regions of Asia. Reishi is provided in a powdered extract or tea, which has been used in studies to determine its pharmacological functions and safety (Yang Y et al, 2019). 

Reishi Mushroom, the King of Mushrooms 
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Red yeast rice is a fermented rice that has been used in Chinese medicine as far back as the Tang Dynasty in 800 AD. It has been historically used for blood circulation, digestion and colon health as well as strengthening the arms and legs. It has a bioactive compound, monacolin K which has demonstrated positive benefits on cholesterol levels. 

Red Yeast Rice & Its Multiple Benefits
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Green tea is a superfood known by the Chinese for traditional use and in research for its amazing health benefits including its antioxidant potential. Tea leaves and the flowers are dried and steep in hot water to gain the flavor and health value bioactives from the green tea solids. The Chinese herbalists have valued the healing effects of drinking the tea as well as taking it in supplement form. For thousands of years, the tea has been part of a daily routine of consumption for health benefits, but also for relaxation. 

Green Tea’s Secret Weapon for Health 
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Glutathione is a powerful antioxidant manufactured within the body’s cells and is found in either reduced glutathione (GSH) or oxidized glutathione (GSSG) forms. Structurally it is made up of 3 amino acids: cysteine, glutamine and glycine. It is found in various foods, but the problem is that during the cooking and pasteurization process the glutathione levels decline. 

Glutathione, the mighty antioxidant 
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There are times that people need extra protection for their immune systems and glutathione is considered one of the most important antioxidants in the body essential for defense. There is a hypothesis that glutathione deficiency is the most likely explanation for the downward path of physiological harm to the body when it is under attack and immune function diminishes (Polonikov A, 2020). 

Glutathione - Essential for Immune Function 
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In general the aging process is the progression of reduced physiological and biological functioning, but there is hope with the proper diet, exercise and supplements to increase longevity. Research shows that aging is affected by oxidative stress and inflammation. Elevated levels of oxidative stress in the body causes damage to DNA, proteins, carbohydrates and other important molecules.

Ginger, For A Healthy Gut & Longevity 
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Fruits and vegetables have shown promising health properties for decades. Although, research has shown that it is possible to slow down the aging process and increase health benefits by providing a special flavonoid, fisetin. It is found in fruits and vegetables. During aging, different body systems begin to have functional problems. Fisetin has demonstrated great potential in giving support to the body as it ages. 

Fisetin – many amazing advantages to health 
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Echinacea is a perennial, medicinal herb, also called the purple coneflower. It is known throughout the world for its use as an immune supporting botanical, but also provides support to the inflammatory response. The plant has various bioactives like phenolic acids, alkamides, caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid. For centuries, Native Americans have included Echinacea in their medicinal regimen for different problems. 

Echinacea – May be a Mighty Warrior for the Immune System 
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In order to have a healthy body one needs to utilize all the nutrients provided from a meal. It is imperative that the gastrointestinal (GI) system is functioning properly and the nutrients from food are broken down and absorbed. If digestion is not complete one may not absorb nutrients properly and encounter digestive problems such as feeling bloated and/or other issues. Eating a healthy diet is important since some processed foods cause gastrointestinal trouble. Some other factors that may cause problems to the GI system include the inability to handle stress, lack of exercise and being overweight.

Digestion and the Value of Digestive Enzymes 
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In the body, coenzyme Q10 is an essential element of the cell’s mitochondrial membranes. Coenzyme Q10 is also manufactured as a fat soluble dietary supplement and has been used in various human clinical studies showing many health benefits. The mitochondria is found in every cell of the body and is considered the powerhouse of the cell where energy is made. Each cell can have as many as 100 or 1000s of mitochondria in each one of them (Cole LW, 2016). 

Coenzyme Q10 and its role as an Anti-Aging Nutrient 
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Bromelain is an amazing enzyme found in the pineapple plant, which has many health benefits. It is grown in different tropical countries such as Thailand, Indonesia, the Philippines, Malaysia, India, Kenya, and China and used in traditional health regimens. Historically, it has been used for digestive problems in Central and South America. Bromelain is a proteolytic enzyme meaning that it helps to break down and digest protein.

Bromelain, a Compound from Pineapple 
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Biotin is one of the water-soluble B vitamins, that is also known as vitamin H or vitamin B7. Biotin is found in foods such as eggs, meat, walnuts, almonds and peanuts; soybeans and legumes, whole grains, cauliflower, mushrooms and bananas. The human body requires biotin for the health of the skin, hair and nails. It is used as an essential cofactor for carboxylase enzymes in various metabolic pathways in the body to assist in converting other nutrients into energy. It is also an essential regulator of gene expression. It is understood that biotin has a role in keratin infrastructure (a matrix of protein found in the skin, hair and nails). 

Biotin, an important B vitamin
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The performance of the immune system is critical to keeping the body healthy so a well balanced diet with fruits and vegetables is important. There are other compounds that have been shown to be helpful to immune function and beta glucan is one of them. Beta glucan is a soluble dietary fiber that has been shown to have a variety of health benefits. It is found naturally in foods such as whole grains, wheat, oats, bran and barley. For centuries before beta glucan was studied, traditional Chinese medicine used mushrooms that contained beta glucans like Shiitake (Lentinus edodes) and Lingzhi (Ganoderma lucidum) to help build up the immune system (Stier H et al, 2014). 

Beta 1, 3 Glucan and Beta 1,6 Glucan
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‍Astaxanthin is one of several natural compounds that have been shown to increase longevity or help health conditions related to the aging process, especially of the skin (Ding A-J et al, 2017). Many are concerned about the appearance of aging skin, but there is more than just appearance. The skin’s reduction in structural integrity and function can affect ones’ health. 

Astaxanthin - Key for Aging Skin 
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Aging is the slowing down of processes in the body and where the cell’s DNA and chromosomes begin to change. Telomeres are segments of the chromosomes that they have clearly observed that shorten with age. The herb Ashwagandha has demonstrated to help stimulate telomerase, which is an enzyme that promotes telomeres and keeps chromosomes healthy. 

Ashwagandha may be useful during the aging process 
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Through the years research has shown that the diet has an effect on aging phenotypes. Particular eating patterns can delay the aging process (Fontana L, Partridge L, 2015). By reducing the amount of food consumed, the timing of meals and intermittent fasting has been shown to help improve health and body function and increase lifespan. 

AKG in the Path to Promote Health & Longevity 
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Folate is a B vitamin, also known as vitamin B9. In the body it is used for the health of hair, skin, nails, and helps to make new cells. Folate is important in the body for a process called methylation. Folic acid is the synthetic form of folate used in dietary supplements and in foods such as pasta, bread, breakfast cereals and rice to fortify them. Folic acid is not fully absorbed in the body. Folate’s active metabolite in the body is 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF). 

5-MTHF - A Form of Folic Acid
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Skeletal muscle is the muscle in the human body that is attached to bone by tendons. These muscles enable one to move, help with posture and breathing. As one ages, they may be thinking about keeping their muscles strong. Aging causes muscle strength and size to diminish, which may cause weakness, fatigue and find it is more difficult to exercise. 

Keeping Skeletal Muscle Healthy during Aging
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Flip through most health and nutrition-focused magazines these days and you’ll likely come across an article on the microbiome. In addition, multiple research studies are being conducted to further develop our understanding and appreciation for the microbiome, how it functions, and how we me may be able to influence it. So, what is the microbiome? Simply put, it is the collection of all microbes, such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses that naturally live on our bodies and inside of us. There are trillions of such micro-organisms in the human body, a staggering number that exceeds that of human cells by approximately 10 to 1 (or more, depending on who you read). 

The Microbiome and the Influence of Nutrition
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Joints are connections between bones and are located in the neck, wrists, fingers, elbows, knees and ankles (Juneja P et al, 2020). They are essential for the body to function properly because we can’t move without them. There are many natural products that are used by individuals to help provide joint support, although only some of these have clinical research to show that they work. Their research is published in peer reviewed journals showing that these compounds perform better than the placebos.

Natural Ways to Support the Joints 
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The immune system plays an important role in keeping the body healthy. In order for us to have energy, feel and look great we need to keep the immune system’s defense strong. Poor immune function can occur from a poor diet, lack of exercise, reduced ability to handle stress and from outside environmental issues. To strengthen immune function, a plant based diet full of dark colored fruits and vegetables, which are rich in carotenoids is beneficial.

Nutrients to Support Immune Function 
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Apricots (Prunus armeniaca L.) are a part of the Rosaceae family, which includes peaches, apples, cherries, berries and almonds. They contain a rich source of vitamins, minerals and fibers. Apricots have been used traditionally by the Chinese for the respiratory system and supporting detoxification (Kan T, Bostan SZ, 2010). They are a great source of phytochemicals with functions such as the prevention of oxidative stress in the body (Leccese A et al, 2011). They have been studied and show that their bioactives have a protective effect on different body systems and organs.

The Diverse Benefits of Apricots
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When most people think of muscle they think of skeletal muscle. The biceps, pecs, delts, legs, and abs. This type of muscle, also referred to as striated muscle, is one of three types in the body. The others include cardiac muscle and smooth muscle. The former is found within the heart and generates force to propel blood throughout the body. The latter is found in several places within body, and is responsible for a variety of functions, such as aiding the bladder to release urine; aiding the digestive track to transport food; and providing blood vessels the ability to contract/relax to control blood pressure and flow. 

The Influence of Exercise and Nutrition on Muscle 
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Muscle soreness after exercise can occur immediately or one can experience pain, dull soreness and stiff feelings 24 hours after intense exercise. This is called delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and has been studied to determine what can help reduce this effect. The pain and soreness may occur because the muscles being intensely worked haven’t been used in a while. 

Measures to Help Muscle Soreness After Exercise,
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It is a metabolic process where the body produces ketone bodies possibly because a person is consuming a low carbohydrate diet (keto diet). The ketone bodies are made from fat and are used for energy since carbohydrates are not available. Today a keto diet is being used for weight loss and to hel

The Keto Diet & Its Health Benefits & Its Shortcomings
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‍Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an enzyme that operates as therapeutic compound against reactive free radicals (Younus H, 2018). It is normal for humans to produce free radicals as part of normal metabolism. In addition, there are more free radicals manufactured during exercise. Increased oxidative stress to the tissues is affected by endurance physical activity, but also by diet, a person’s training level, aging, dehydration and some other factors (Kawamura T and Muraoka I, 2018). 

Superoxide Dismutase, the Body’s Helper to Remove Free Radicals during Exercise 
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Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is considered to be part of the body’s front line of defense for its immune system (Ighodaro OM, Akinloye OA, 2018). As in any battle, the front line is the area closest to the war zone or area of conflict. SOD is an enzyme found in all living cells and is involved in the battle to keep the immune system fighting for health. 

SOD, the body’s Front Line of Defense 
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In the body, sirtuins are believed to be important to postponing the aging process and keeping body systems and organs healthy. Low calorie diets and exercise have been shown to stimulate sirtuins and help delay the aging process (Kane AE, Sinclair DA, 2018). Sirtuins are proteins and 7 of them are found in the body that are involved in regulating cellular activity and keeping the cells balanced (Grabowska W et al, 2017). They are active with cell signaling and cell survival in the cell’s mitochondria and when they do not operate properly, the body ages faster and there is greater risk for health problems.

Sirtuin Activators 
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Plant-based diets have increased considerably in popularity over the past decade, with millions of individuals now adhering to a diet that is either entirely comprised of plants or is predominantly comprised of plants—the latter often referred to as a “plant-forward” diet. While a nutrition plan consisting of plant foods may seem restrictive to some, the reality is that there is a great variety of foods to choose from, including all fruits, vegetables, grains, legumes, nuts, and seeds.

Plant-Based Diets and Health
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Our immune systems are affected by many different things including climate changes. With fluctuating outdoor temperatures our immune systems are not always prepared to handle it. In addition, the influence of light and dark cycles also can weaken our bodies. Harmful germs from the environment can attack and damage our immune cells. As one ages, the immune system becomes more vulnerable. There are certain compounds such as mTOR in the body, once inhibited can help to restore health and longevity. 

mTor Promoting Immune Function & Longevity 
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Energy is a key to staying healthy and to enjoying life! The body requires food to be used to make cellular energy, which is needed to perform all its functions including work, exercise and daily activities. Energy is also necessary for repairing, building and maintaining cells and body tissues. NAD+ is necessary to make that energy! The cells have a wide spectrum of work to perform and the energy is needed for all important tasks including, keeping the mind alert and having a good memory; keeping the heart beating, performing immune system functions, maintaining healthy muscles and breathing. 

NAD+ And Why It Is Important 
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There is a process called autophagy that occurs, where the body has the ability to clean out damaged cells and regenerate and replace them with new healthy cells. It is a housekeeping feature of the body that is a recycling type process. It occurs in the cytoplasm (jelly like part) of the cell to help the body stay healthy and contributes to longevity. 

Autophagy - Detoxify Cells 
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Scientific research is a constant and exciting pursuit of answers. Scientists can identify areas in which answers are needed, and then go to work to design experiments to best answer those questions. In many cases, the more answers that are generated, the more questions scientists have, as we realize we oftentimes do not know nearly as much as we once thought. 

The Why and How of Scientific Research
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Obesity has made an impact on people’s health and has become an epidemic in the United States (U.S.). In fact, in the U.S. healthy individuals with a normal body mass index (BMI) is considered the minority (Rynders CA et al, 2019). The most established way to trigger weight loss is to prescribe a reduction in calorie intake. Investigators have performed research to evaluate weight loss strategies that involved calorie intake restriction for periods of time during the day or extended lengths of time of fasting between meals. This would describe an intermittent fasting approach. 

Intermittent Fasting, the Why and the How 
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‍The metabolic switch is the place in the body where there is a negative energy balance. The level of glycogen (stored sugar) in the liver is drained and the switch is flipped and fatty acids move out of the tissues and into the blood stream. This occurs after around 12 hours of fasting (Anton SD et al, 2018). More and more research is being done that shows a metabolic switch occurs when utilizing fatty acid ketones instead of glucose. This causes a SHIFT from the lipids and cholesterol in storage released to be used for energy. Fat goes through the metabolic pathway called fatty acid oxidation to produce ketones during fasting. 

How to Flip on the Metabolic Switch 
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It is known that restricting calories and intermittent fasting helps to increase lifespan. In addition, there is plenty of research to show that these programs have amazing health benefits for the body and brain. Some people cut down on calories or fast on and off during the week to help manage their weight. The problem is that for many, these types of programs are difficult to follow. 

Fasting Mimicking Diet 
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‍Calories in – calories out. “Calories in” pertains to the number of calories one consumes from carbohydrates, fat and protein in food, while “calories out” refers to the number of calories a person burns or expends. Excess calorie intake, no matter if it is from carbohydrates, fat or protein will go into fat storage. Even if a food doesn’t contain fat, it may have a large number of calories and in excess will go into the body’s fat storage. 

Benefits of a Calorie Restricted Diet and Intermittent Fasting 
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Cruciferous vegetables are in the plant family, Brassicaceae, which have flowers with 4 petals that are the same size and have a crucifer cross pattern. This family includes kale, cauliflower, broccoli, cabbage, garden cress, bok choy, Brussels sprouts, and some other green leafy vegetables. They contain a large array of phytochemicals that include glucosinolates and their metabolites like indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and 3,3′- diindolylmethane (DIM) (Zhanga WW et al, 2014). 

DIM for the health of Prostate & Breast Tissue
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It is a matrix of structures in the brain that involve the desires and cravings of a reward involving the release of the brain neurotransmitter, dopamine. Those intense cravings then result in emotions with pleasurable feelings such as joy, ecstasy, and euphoria. It can be a happy moment, but can lead to addictions. Dopamine is produced within the midbrain, dopamine neurons of the Brain Reward Center, also called the mesolimbic system (Adinoff B, 2004). When the brain receives a stimulus it then releases dopamine and causes reward seeking behavior. 

Brain Reward System
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The mitochondria makes energy by using important compounds. The biochemical energy is used by the body for the beating of the heart, breathing and exercising muscles. The body needs the energy to function at its best mentally and physically. Glucose, as a food for the mitochondria is utilized in the Krebs Cycle pathway into 2 important compounds, Nicotinic Adenine Dinucleotide (NADH) and pyruvate.

Powerful Mitochondrial Components for Brain Energy
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Research is investigating ways to stop cognitive decline by finding metabolic agents to increase cellular ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) levels. ATP is the molecule that carries and transfers or stores energy within all living cells. ATP energy is made from food substances that are broken down and released. If ATP levels were increased, it may improve the functioning of the mitochondria and maintain ATP within cells (Owen L et al, 2011). This would help to reduce problems with the neurons ability to do their work. One of the goals in brain research is to identify potential “cognition enhancing agents,” which would help to improve and preserve cognitive performance during the aging process. 

The Relationship between Cellular ATP Levels and Cognitive Function 
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It is known that with aging there will be a loss of bone. In fact, problems with bones can catch one off guard and before they know it they fall or have an accident and find out they have bone loss and poor bone density. Research shows that total bone density and total bone mineral contents peak in the 20s for both men and women with women’s peaks significantly earlier (Lu J et al, 2016). Thereafter there is a slow decline that can lead to bone problems and frailty. 

Taking Care of Bones during Aging
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When most people think of bone, they think of the long bones of body, such as those of the arm or leg. However, bone is a highly complex tissue that functions to make up the over 200 individual bones of the skeletal system. In fact, there exist four distinct types of bones including: long bones, such as the bones of the arm and leg, that provide leverage to facilitate movement; short bones, that facilitate movement and strength in complex joints such as the wrist and ankle; flat bones, such as the skull, sternum, ribs, and hip—considered the armor of the body; and irregular bones, such as facial bones and vertebrae, that are neither long, short, nor flat. 

Exercise, Nutrition, and Supplementation Strategies for Improving Bone Health 
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The prefix xeno means a foreign substance or stranger and hormesis is a protective way to respond when there is mild stress in the environment. Xenohormesis is a biological theory that shows how plants that are stressed in the environment produce bioactive substances that increase resistance and a means to survive to the animals that ingest them (Hooper PL et al, 2010). Some of the stresses to plants include dehydration, starvation, predator invasion, intense weather changes and plant cell damage (Howitz KT, Sinclair DA, 2008). 

Xenohormesis – A process that extends life
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Too many food choices are available to Americans. This leads to selecting poor quality high sugar, high fat foods with empty calories. This causes lack of interest in healthy foods, rich in vitamins and minerals. Making a decision to say “no” to unhealthy items and “yes” to foods rich in nutrients is a health victory that yields increased energy and a longer life. 

Vitamins and minerals that boost longevity 
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‍There are various widespread theories on why aging takes place, sighted in the scientific literature. Scientists originally had a single all inclusive theory to describe aging. There were beliefs that a single gene or the immune system failing were the key reasons. Although, it is now known that there are multiple developments that occur during the aging process (Pinto da Costa J et al, 2016). It is essential that those in the health care field understand the significance of the ageing process since it involves special care and management for the older population. It is estimated that there will be up to 88.5 million individuals over the age of 65 by the year, 2050 (Flint B, Tadi P, 2021). 

The Programmed Theory of Aging 
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Research shows that a major culprit in the aging process of cells is oxidative damage leading to cell death. This article explains what that means and what can be done to reverse the pattern and extend life. A plant based diet, exercise and some dietary supplements may have a great effect on the mitochondria to help promote longevity. When there are functional problems in the cell’s mitochondria, it results in loss of energy and other problems

A Mitochondrial Advantage to Extend Life Span – Wisdom, Knowledge 
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There are various theories on aging with much debate. Many theories are based on immune function problems, molecular cross-linking, free radical producing damage and shortening of chromosomal telomeres. One particular theory is called the Damage Theory or Error Theory. It emphasizes damage produced from the outside environment to living things. This damage is cumulative damage at different levels. Another theory that is similar is the Free Radical Theory. It suggests that superoxide and other free radicals present within cells cause destruction to the cellular compounds that lead to cell death.

The Damage Theory of Aging 
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According to research, one can extend their lifespan by restricting the amino acid, methionine from the diet. Methionine is an essential amino acid used in the body for growth and metabolism. It also is needed to manufacture homocysteine and some other compounds. There has been a great deal of research showing that reducing calories extends life span, but the exact mechanism is not clear. It has been shown in research since the 1990’s that by restricting methionine from the diet it can extend lifespan (Orgeron ML et al, 2014)

Restricting Methionine from the Diet Increases Lifespan 
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Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is a compound located in every living cell and is critically important for metabolism. It helps to convert food into energy within the mitochondria of cells. An imbalance in the equilibrium of cellular NAD has an impact on chromosomal telomeres leads to a faster aging process. Why is NAD+ important? It is critically important to keep the body healthy including the heart and arteries; the brain, the lungs and bronchioles; repairing DNA and it has many other functions. 

NAD+ Equilibrium, Telomeres and Aging 
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When one thinks of something that is mosaic they may think of a pattern which is made up of small pieces of broken colored glass or stone that is held together by plaster. The name, “Mosaic aging” has been coined as the pattern of various changes in the body that occur at different times and rates (Walkera LC, Herndon JG, 2010). Although there are different changes that occur, one can still alter the pattern within by modifying diet, lifestyle and adding exercise into their daily regimen to modify destiny. 

Mosaic Aging
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Aging is considered to be the slow loss of bodily functions demonstrated by altering cells. To delay the aging process, the objective is to find ways to reduce oxidative stress and help prevent the negative changes to cells that brings about health conditions. The goal is to promote and prolong life and nourish cells. Research shows that there are different pathways in the body that regulate the rate of aging and its process (Bareja A, et al, 2019).

Longevity Pathways that Help Delay the Aging Process 
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Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the form of energy that is stored within the mitochondria (the powerhouse of the cell) of every cell of the body. ATP production begins the Krebs Citric Acid Cycle. Research supported by the NIH has worked on a theory called the “Energy Maintenance Theory of Aging” (Chaudhari SN et al, 2018).

Energy Maintenance Theory of Aging
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As people age, it is essential that individuals maintain a healthy weight. It is known that additional body weight combined with the physiological changes of aging can cause problems. A person becomes more susceptible to health conditions and it reduces life expectancy. Excess weight puts strain on the heart and blood vessels. In 2019, the American Heart Association showed that the incidence of cardiovascular

Aging, Weight Control Influenced by Leptin levels and Sirt 1
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It is known that aging is characterized by a decline in the function of body systems, tissues, and organs. There is evidence that shows the association between epigenetic changes and aging decline. The reason researchers are investigating epigenetics is that it can be reversed and that there are ways in the pathways to prevent age-related decline and disease. 

Aging and Epigenetics - How to Change Pathway to Increase Life Span
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